The Astrobiology Laboratory, known as AstroLab, originated from the joint effort of Brazilian researchers from different areas, interested in the research and teaching of Astrobiology. The group started to interact, still informally, in the year of 2006, with the realisation of the first Brazilian workshop of astrobiology, which gathered researchers from many Brazilian states and from different backgrounds. In the year of 2009 the group, with research and collaborations already consolidated, was given a physical space, offered by the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences of the University of São Paulo(IAG-USP). The local chosen was the Observatory Abrahao de Moraes, which belongs to IAG,located between the city of Valinhos and Vinhedo, close to Sao Paulo and Campinas. In the year of 2011, Astrolab started its activities, with a major part of the necessary infrastructure for the research already concluded. In 2014, the whole AstroLab was moved to the Chemistry Institute of the same university, where it is now located and fully functional, with its facilities open for the research community interested in working with astrobiology.

Also in 2011, it was created the Astrobiology Research Unit (NAP/Astrobio), with the goal of providing a multidisciplinary environment where researchers from different institutes and departments of USP, as well as of other universities, could interact. The NAP/Astrobio has AstroLab as its main research facility, but it also counts with the participation of other laboratories, giving the group access to the most modern research techniques, and providing important collaborations.

Since 2012, the NAP/Astrobio is an international partner of major research centers in the world, such as the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) and the European Astrobiology Network Association (EANA), enabling opportunities for interchange of researchers and students, as well as collaborations in international projects.